Gasification is an efficient, well established, and commercially‐proven process to convert low‐value feedstocks into the building blocks of high‐value fuel and energy products. Gasification is a flexible technology that is used worldwide to convert hydrocarbons such as coal, petroleum coke, and biomass into synthesis gas, or syngas. Syngas can then be converted into hydrogen, electricity, and a variety of chemicals, fertilizers, and liquid fuels.
The fundamental gasification process is the same for coal, oil, biomass, or any hydrocarbon or carbon based material, however the unique chemistry of each of these materials require unique designs to efficiently and cost effectively integrate the gasifier with downstream conversion processes. Gasifiers use heat, steam, and oxygen to partially combust the carbonaceous materials into simpler molecules that are later recombined to form fuels. Syngas is primarily a mixture of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2). Syngas produced from biomass also contains carbon dioxide (CO2) and other contaminants, such as hydrogen chloride (HCl), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3). These components must be removed during subsequent syngas cleanup processes to produce syngas that meets specifications for downstream catalytic processing technology.
High Pressure Gasification and Cellulosic Biomass
The main requirements for any gasifier that will be used to produce liquid fuels in an economical manner are to continuously produce syngas of reliable composition, at high pressure, with minimal dilution, and with minimal contaminants. No commercial gasifier has demonstrated the ability to meet these requirements when operating with biomass as the feed stock. SynGas Technologys high pressure gasification design allows for gasifier operation at high pressures (20 atm and above), higher temperatures (1700F and above), and has been adapted to the unique challenges of processing cellulosic biomass feedstocks. These technological advancements offer a number of advantages over currently available cellulosic biomass gasifier technologies on the market today.
SGTs process design eliminates the need for costly compressor technology required for low pressure systems and improves upon currently available high pressure gasifier technology. Typical high pressure gasification systems produce a significant fraction of inorganic constituents, known as slag. Slag melts at elevated temperatures and flows to the bottom of the high‐temperature reactor. SGTs design maximizes conversion of carbon, greatly reducing the costs incurred for slag removal systems.
SynGas Technologys high pressure gasifier design incorporates decades of specialized research not available to the cellulosic biomass industry. Our advanced, patent pending design technologies significantly reduce both operating costs and secondary byproduct formation (tars and slag) that have plagued previous gasifier systems. The end result of SynGas Technologys research and design is a lower cost, highly reliable, continuous operation cellulosic biomass gasifier that requires appreciably lower operating costs and minimal maintenance compared to current systems.